Friday, December 7, 2012

World War II

World War II

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World War II Chronology:

1939 -- 15-March - German troops invade Czechoslovakia. 30 - March - France and England pledge to protect Poland’s independence 7-April - Italy attacks Albania 23-August - Nazi Germany and the USSR sign a non-aggression pact. 25 -August - Orders to invade Poland are canceled. 1-September  Nazi Germany invades Poland; Norway claims neutrality; Portugal claims neutrality; Sweden claims neutrality. 3 - September  Great Britain and France declare war on Nazi Germany; Spain claims neutrality; Ireland claims neutrality; United States proclaims neutrality. 8 - September  - President of United States declares limited national emergency. 9 - September  -Canada declares war. 29 - September  - Germany and Soviet union agree on the partition of Poland. 6-October  Last remnant of Polish forces surrenders to German Army. 4-November  Congress passes law permitting “cash and carry” sale of munitions to belligerents. 30 - November  - USSR attacks Finland.

1940 12-March Soviet-Finnish war ends. 8-April  Nazi Germany occupies Denmark and invades Norway. 20 -April  - . British land troops in Norway. 23 -April  - Greece concludes armistice with Nazi Germany.10-May Nazi Germany launches “Sichelschnitt” invasion of Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and France. Churchill succeeds Chamberlain as British Prime Minister. 13 - May - Nazi General Erwin Rommel’s 7th Panzer Division crosses the Meuse River near Dinant while General Heinz Guderian’s 19th Armored Corps crosses the Meuse River at Sedan. 15 - May - The Dutch surrender to Nazi Germany. 23 - May - Boulogne, France, falls to Nazi Germany. 24 - May - Allies withdraw from Norway. 27 May - Belgium surrenders to Nazi Germany. Allied troops begin to evacuate from Dunkirk, France. 3-June  United States releases war material to Great Britain. 4 - June  - Evacuation of Allied troops from Dunkirk is completed. Hitler allows 338,000 troops to escape to England. Churchill makes his “We shall fight on the beaches...” speech to Parliament. 9 - June  - Norwegian government falls to Germany. 10 - June  - Italy declares war on France and Great Britain. 14 - June  - Germans march into Paris. 22 - June  - France and Nazi Germany conclude armistice. 24 - June  - France and Italy conclude armistice. 3-July  British naval forces attack French fleet at Oran. 10 - July  - Battle of Britain - Nazi Germany begins air offensive against Great Britain with 65 German airplanes. 16 - July  Hitler issues an invasion of Great Britain directive, Operation Sealion. to the German armed forces. 18 - July  Churchill makes his “This was their finest hour...” speech to Parliament. 19 - July  - Hitler in the Reichstag makes a public peace offer to Britain, which is rejected on the 22nd by Churchill. 31- July  - German high command meets with Hitler and agrees to attack the USSR in May. 27-Augus  Congress authorizes call of reserve components for 12 months’ duty. Hitler approves Franco’s Spanish-German plan to attack Gibraltar. 3- September  - United States and Great Britain conclude agreement to exchange destroyers (U.S.) for base rights (British). Hitler orders that British cities will be bombed every night, in retribution for their bombing of Berlin. 13 - September  - Italy invades Egypt seeking to gain control of the Suez Canal. 16 - September  -Draft - Selective Service law enacted by Congress. 18 - September  - Hitler postpones Operation Sealion. 22 September  -Japanese invade French Indochina. 27 - September  - Axis - Nazi Germany, Italy, Japan conclude three-power pact. October 23 Franco agrees to enter the war. 28 - October  - Italy attacks Greece. 31 - October  - Churchill considers the Battle of Britain over 20 November . Hungary joined the Axis, Romania joined the Axis


1941 -- 5 January  British soldiers invaded Ethiopia29 -January  - British-American Staff Conversations1-Mar Bulgaria joined the Axis. 11 -March - Congress passes Lend-Lease Act6-April Germany invaded Greece and Yugoslavia. 13 - April Japan and Russia signed a non-aggression pact27-May President Roosevelt proclaims state of unlimited national emergency8 June British and French forces invaded Syria22 June - Russia is invaded by Hitler with approximately 3 million troops. 7-July  United States forces land in Iceland. 26 -July United States declares oil embargo on Japan. 7-Augus  The Atlantic Charter was announced 14-Augus  - Roosevelt and Churchill announce Atlantic Charter. 4-September  German torpedo attack on USS Greer opens tacit shooting war in Atlantic. 25 -September  Army and Navy Secretaries submit to Roosevelt an estimate of U.S. forces needed to defeat the Axis and Japan. 1-October  First Soviet Protocol signed by U.S., Great Britain, and USSR at Moscow. 7-8 December . Japan delivers simultaneous bombing attacks on Pearl Harbor, the Philippines, Wake, and Guam, invades Malaya and Thailand, seizes Shanghai, and declares war on the U.S. and Great Britain. 8 - December . German offensive in Russia bogs down Canada Declares War on Japan. 9 - December . China declares war on Japan, Nazi Germany, and Italy. 10 - December . Japanese capture Guam, land on Luzon in Philippines. 11 - December . Nazi Germany and Italy declare war on United States, and United States declares itself at war with them. 18 - December . Japanese they attacked Hong Kong and on Christmas Day the British surrendered. December - 20 Chennault’s Flying Tigers enter combat against Japanese in China. 23 - December . General Macarthur decides to evacuate Manila and withdraw to Bataan. Wake Island captured by Japanese.

Students and Teachers of US History this is a video of Stanley and Christopher Klos presenting America's Four United Republics Curriculum at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School. The December 2015 video was an impromptu capture by a member of the audience of Penn students, professors and guests that numbered about 200. - Click Here for more information
1942 1-January  United Nations Declaration signed by twenty-six nations at war with Axis2 -January  - Japanese occupy Manila7 -January  - American and Filipino forces complete withdrawal into Bataan9-January  - Combined Chiefs of Staff established. 14 -24. Anglo-American Conference (ARCADIA) at Washington. 19 Japanese capture British North Borneo. 23 Japanese capture Rabaul and Kavieng in the Bismarck Archipelago, invade Bougainville in the Solomons. 1-February  U.S. Navy bombards Gilberts and Marshalls. 2 Singapore surrenders27 -28. Allies loose the Battle of Java Sea. Japanese invade Java. March - November . Submarine attacks in Atlantic rise to record heights. 7 Japanese occupy Burma. 9 War Department is reorganized. 17 General MacArthur reaches Australia and takes command of Allied forces. April 8 -15 April British-American conversations in London result in conditional agreement on BOLERO-ROUNDUP Plan9 Surrender of Bataan18 First U.S. air bombardment of Tokyo2-May Japanese land on Tulagi, adjacent to Guadalcanal, where they soon began to build an airstrip. Surrender of all U.S. forces in PhilippinesAllies win Battle of the Coral Sea. 20 Japanese complete conquest of Burma27 Rommel opens drive into Egypt. 3-6 June Allies win Battle of Midway. 5 The United States declared war on Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania. Japanese invade western Aleutians21 Axis troops seized Tobruk in North Africa1-July Germans capture Sevastopol. Rommel’s advance stops at border of Egypt. 4 One of the most devastating submarine attacks on convoy to USSR along the northern route. 7 Second Soviet Protocol signed15 British suspend convoys to USSR on northern route18-25. British-American. conversations in London, resulting in decision to invade North Africa21 Japanese landing near Gona, New Guinea, starts Papua Campaign7-Augus  South Pacific forces invade Guadalcanal, Florida, and Tulagi Islands, in the Solomons19 British Commonwealth force raids Dieppe, France that results in a disaster with 3,367 casualties including 1,946 prisoners of war. 23 Churchill accepts Roosevelt’s proposal that the U.S. operate Persian Gulf facilities for aid to USSR14-September  Battle for Stalingrad begins23-October  British open counteroffensive at El Alamein8-November  Allies land at Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers in French North Africa. 10 Axis troops move into Tunis and Bizerte. 11 British offensive reaches Libya. French resistance to Allies in North Africa ceases. Axis troops march into unoccupied France. 13 British recapture Tobruk. 15 Allied offensive in West reaches Tunisia. 19 The Russians counter-attack at Stalingrad. 27 French fleet scuttled in Toulon harbor. 24 December Allied drive on Tunis ends in stalemate.


1943 14 -23 January  Allied conference at Casablanca. 22 Campaign for Papua, New Guinea, ends. 27 Eighth Air Force makes its first attack on Nazi Germany, at Wilhelmshaven. 2-February  Soviet Army destroys remnants of German Sixth Army at Stalingrad. 9 Organized Japanese resistance on Guadalcanal ceases. 20 Rommel breaks through Kasserine Pass, Tunisia. 25 Allies retake Kasserine Pass. 2-4 March The Allies defeat the Japanese in the Battle of the Bismarck Sea. 13 Japanese troops retreated across the Yangtze 16 Final Allied offensive in Tunisia begins. 18 Americans capture E1 Guettar. 20 - 27 Montgomery breaks through the Mareth Line. 11 - 31 May With recapture of Attu by Allies Japanese are driven from the Aleutians. 13 Axis forces in northern Africa surrendered. 12 -25. TRIDENT Conference in Washington. 13 Axis forces in Tunisia surrender. 1-30 June Shipping losses reach new low, signalizing victory over U-boat. 30 Allies begin operation for reduction of Rabaul (CARTWHEEL) with attacks in central Solomons and New Guinea. 4-July  Germany opened an assault near the Soviet city of Kursk. 10 Allies invade Sicily. 25 Mussolini falls from power in Italy.14 - 24 August  QUADRANT Conference at Quebec. 17 End of Sicily campaign. 23 Germans abandon Kharkov. 25 Allies complete occupation of New Georgia, Solomon Islands. 3-September  British troops invade Southern Italy. Italy secretly signed an armistice with the Allies 4-16. Southwest Pacific forces recapture Lae-Salamaua,  New Guinea. 8 Italy formally surrenders. 9 Allies under U.S. Fifth Army land on the Salerno beaches; British troops land at Taranto.  Allies failed to pierce German defenses at the Hitler Line south of Rome. 11 Italian Fleet is surrendered at Malta. 1-October  Allies enter Naples and occupy Foggia airfields. 2 Australians seize Finschhafen, New Guinea. 13 Italy declares war on Nazi Germany. 14 Soviets reach Zaporodzhe, industrial center of Ukraine. 19 - 30 Soviet, British, American Foreign Ministers and military representatives confer in Moscow. 1-November  South Pacific forces invade Bougainville. U.S. Fifth Army attacks German Winter Line in Italy. 6 The Russians captured Kiev. 20 Opening of Central Pacific offensive (Makin and Tarawa in Gilberts). 2 - 7 -December  Allied conferences, Cairo-Tehran (SEXTANT, EUREKA). 14 Soviet armies begin first phase of winter offensive. 26 Southwest Pacific troops invade New Britain at Cape Gloucester.

1944 15-January  USSR opens offensive to relieve Leningrad. 20 In Italy, beginning of unsuccessful operations to cross the Rapido River and seize Cassino. 22 VI Corps, U.S. Fifth Army, lands at Anzio. 27 The Russians broke the siege of Leningrad 31 Central Pacific forces invade the Marshall Islands. 12-February  General Eisenhower is formally designated Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force, Europe, by Combined Chiefs of Staff. 18 U.S. Naval forces attack Truk in Caroline Islands. 20 Reduction of Rabaul completed with Japanese abandonment of it as an airbase. 24 In Burma, Merrill’s Marauders advance into Hukawng Valley, with the Myitkyina airfield as their goal. 29 Southwest Pacific forces begin invasion of Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago. 5-March Soviet Army opens drive in the Ukraine to destroy enemy in Dnieper bend. 20German troops occupy Hungary. 10-Apr Odessa retaken by Russian troops.  22 Southwest Pacific forces land at Aitape and Hollandia, New Guinea. 9-May Sevastopol retaken by Soviet forces. 11 In Italy, Allies open a general offensive against the Gustav Line. 17 Myitkyina airstrip captured by Chinese forces. 18 Allied forces capture Cassino. 23 U.S. VI Corps launches offensive to break out of the Anzio Beachhead. 27 Southwest Pacific force lands on Biak Island, New Guinea. 4-June  U.S. Fifth Army enters Rome. D Day. Allied Forces invade France, landing on coast of Normandy, in Operation OVERLORD. 9 Soviet forces launch attack against the Finnish positions on Karelian Isthmus. 12 Germans launch first V-1 bombs against England. 15 B-29’s based in China, make their first attack on Japanese homeland. Central Pacific forces invade the Marianas. 19 -20 U.S. forces won the Battle of the Philippine Sea. 27 Organized resistance ceases at Cherbourg.

1945 - January 1-17 - Germany withdraws from the Ardennes, 16th - The U. S. Army 1st and 3rd divisions join forces after a month long separation while fighting the Battle of the Bulge, 17th - Warsaw, Poland captured by Soviets, 26th - Auschwitz P.O.W camp is liberated.February 4 - 11 President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin hold conference in Yalta, 13-14th Allied bombing destroys Dresden; March 6th - The final German offensive begins as they attempt to defend Hungarian oil field, 7th - A bridge is established across the Rhine at Remagen following the allies taking of Cologne, 30th - Danzig captured by Soviet troops; April 1st - German troops are trapped by United States while defending Ruhr Allied offensive in North Italy, 12th - Concentration camps: Belsen and Buchenwald liberated by Allies, President Franklin D. Roosevelt dies, Vice President Harry S. Truman assumes the Presidency, 16th -- Soviets launch the final attack on Berlin and Americans enter Nuremberg, 18th -- The surrounded German Army surrenders at Ruhr, 21st -- The Soviet Army surrounds Berlin, 28th -- The Allies capture Venice. Italian partisans capture and hang Mussolini, 29th – Dachau, P.O.W. camp is liberated by the Americans 7th Army, 30th -- Adolph Hitler commits suicide; May 2nd -- German troops in Italy surrender, 7th -- All German forces submit to un conditional surrender to Allies, 8th -- Victory in Europe, 9th -- Troops of the United States 7th Army capture Hermann Goring, 23rd -- Reichsfuher Himmler commits suicide; June 5th - Germany is divided and Berlin remains the seat of the government, 26th - United Nations Charter signed; July 1st - Allied forces: U.S. British and French move into Berlin, 16th - United States tests the atomic bomb; August 6th - United States drops the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, 8th - After declaring war on Japan, the Soviet army invades Manchuria, 9th - United States drops 2nd atomic bomb on Nagasaki, 14th - Unconditional surrender by Japan; September 2nd - V.J. Day as Japan signs unconditional surrender; October 24th - Birth of United Nations; November 20 - Nuremberg trials begin; October 16th, 1946 - Two hours prior to his execution, Herman Goring commits suicide.

World War II

1939 - 1945

by Neal McLaughlin -- August 2004

World War I, which was said to be "the war to end all wars," had definitely fallen short of this proclamation. Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles, the 3 major powers each retreated back to their neutral corners. This, however, is not to imply that they did so with a smile on their faces. 

The results of World War I had been less than expected. Germany was extremely resentful of their territorial losses and at the demand made that they pay restitution. Italy, even though victorious, felt that she did not gain enough territory to offset their wartime expenditures or to satisfy their ambitions. Japan, also victorious, was beside them selves because they had not gained control of China as they had hoped.

The United States, United Kingdom and France, who had attained their war objectives, did not leave the arena as happy victors. The French and the British were frequently embroiled in disagreement on a postwar policy but neither country was confident in their abilities to defend the peace settlement. The United States, disenchanted by the Europeans failure to repay their war time debts, retreated into Isolationism.

The primary objective of the Great War was to make the "world safe for democracy." Following their defeat, Germany, as did most of the other post war states, adopted a Democratic constitution. However, by the 1920's, it appeared that the future would be paved in a form of nationalistic, militaristic totalitarianism known also as Fascism.

Fascism, was a promise to respond to the needs of the people more effectively than a democracy could and to assure defense against the state becoming communist. In 1922, Italy, under the direction of Benito Mussolini was the first post war country to establish a dictatorship.

Adolph Hitler and the National Socialist Party promised their people that he would overturn the ruling of the Versailles Treaty and expand the land of Germany, thus giving his people more space. In early 1930, depression fell upon Germany forcing the more moderate of parties to turn to the Nazis and Communism.

Japan, with her strong and powerful military intact did not adopt formal Fascism, but instead imposed a similar form of totalitarianism. The Japanese's military was well ahead of Hitler's and in 1931 they would clash with the Chinese near Mukden, and by 1938 occupy all of the Chinese ports.

In March of 1938, with the support of Mussolini, Hitler began his promised expansion project. Britain, who had been under the impression that they had established a treaty with Germany would later pledge their support to Poland if Hitler continued his forward thrust. France had already established a mutual defense treaty with Poland and she was prepared for a defensive if Germany in fact invaded Poland.

It now seemed that history was once again preparing to repeat itself. Germany continued their expansion program and Italy moved forward and seized Albania and in 1939 would unite with Germany. In reaction to this, Britain and France had abandoned their appeasement policy in favor of an anti-aggression front with her allies Turkey, Greece, Poland and Romania.

On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland without a declaration of war. In return, on September 3, Britain and France declared war on Germany. Very little time passed before the remaining member of the Commonwealth of Nations joined them, with exception to Ireland.

America had wanted nothing to do with the European conflict and was trying very hard to remain neutral. However, as the conditions on the war front deteriorated, the United States was forced to intervene to prevent the total collapse of Britain. The 1941 passing of the Lend-Lease act permitted America to extend her hand out to Britain. After meeting with Prime Minister Winston Churchill, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt agreed with the proposed charter to pronounce the aims of the democratic states.

The United States established military bases to protect shipping lanes from U-boat attacks while issuing repeated warnings to Germany, who failed to acknowledge them. relations quickly crumbled. Japan continued her aggressive acts in China, Indochina and Thailand despite the protesting of the United States.

The "Day of Infamy" speech was made by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt to a Joint Session of Congress at 12:30 p.m. on Monday, December 8, 1941, in Washington, D.C.

The United States ended all efforts of establishing some sort of peace settlement when on December 7th, 1941 the Japanese Air Force soared in and bombed Pearl Harbor. On December 8th, The outraged United States and the Commonwealth of Nations, with exception to Ireland, declared war on Japan. Several days following this declaration, Germany declared war on the United States.

From 1941 to September of 1945, when all hostilities officially ceased, World War II turned out to be one of the most devastating and costly Global Military conflicts in the history of the world. This war involved 61 countries, 1.7 billion people, which was 3/4 s of the world's population, and cost more than 1 trillion dollars to carry out!

The loss of life was phenomenal, it is estimated that the militaries had lost 25 million troops and the civilian death count was nearly 30 million. Including the 5.5 +/-millions of Jews who perished during the Holocaust and the 110,000 +/-Japanese who were eradicated during the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

World War II was different from any other previous war, as it relied on the total commitment of all of the nations populous and economic resources. There was, however, a positive outcome to this travesty. There was the development of new weaponry, such as the long-range rocket and the A-bomb, as well as radical advancements in the mechanized units and the air force.

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

The Allied Armies, through sacrifice and devotion and with God's help, have wrung from Germany a final and unconditional surrender. The western world has been freed of the evil forces which for five years and longer have imprisoned the bodies and broken the lives of millions upon millions of free-born men. They have violated their churches, destroyed their homes, corrupted their children, and murdered their loved ones. Our Armies of Liberation have restored freedom to these suffering peoples, whose spirit and will the oppressors could never enslave. 

Much remains to be done. The victory won in the West must now be won in the East. The whole world must be cleansed of the evil from which half the world has been freed. United, the peace-loving nations have demonstrated in the West that their arms are stronger by far than the might of dictators or the tyranny of military cliques that once called us soft and weak. The power of our peoples to defend themselves against all enemies will be proved in the Pacific war as it has been proved in Europe.

For the triumph of spirit and of arms which we have won, and for its promise to peoples everywhere who join us in the love of freedom, it is fitting that we, as a nation, give thanks to Almighty God, who has strengthened us and given us the victory. 

Now, THEREFORE, I, HARRY S. TRUMAN, President of the United States of America, do hereby appoint Sunday, May 13, 1945, to be a day of prayer. 

I call upon the people of the United States, whatever their faith, to unite in offering joyful thanks to God for the victory we have won and to pray that He will support us to the end of our present struggle and guide us into the way of peace. 

I also call upon my countrymen to dedicate this day of prayer to the memory of those who have given their lives to make possible our victory. 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States of America to be affixed. 

DONE at the City of Washington this eighth day of May, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and forty-five, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and sixty-ninth.

By the President: 

Acting Secretary of State

World War I - Click Here                   Vietnam War - Click Here

World War II Battles and Events

Battle Of Britain

Battle Of Guadal Canal

Battle Of Kursk

Battle Of Liege

Battle Of Midway

Battle Of Stalingrad

Battle Of The Atlantic

Battle Of The Bulge

Battle Of The Pacific

Battle Of The Philippines

Bombing Of Hiroshima

Bombing Of Nagasaki

Iwo JimaMaginot Line


The Allies

Omar Bradley

Neville ChamberlainSir Winston Churchill

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Charles De Gaulle

John F. Kennedy

Chiang Kaishek

Douglas MacArthur

George Marshall

Anthony McAuliffe

William Moffett

Bernard Law Montgomery

Richard Montgomery

Audie Murphy

Chester Nimitz

George Patton

Hyman Rickover

Matthew Ridgway

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Joseph Stalin

Jonathan Wainwright

The Axis

Nazi Propaganda

Sepp Dietrich

Karl Donitz

Emperor Of Japan

Mitsuo Fuchida

Joseph Goebbels

Hermann Goring

Heinrich Himmler


Adolf Hitler

Otto Kretschmer

Erich Ludendorff

Erich Manstein

Hasso Von Manteuffel

Genda Minoru

Erwin Rommel

World War I - Click Here                   Vietnam War - Click Here

 The Congressional Evolution of the United States of America 

Continental Congress of the United Colonies Presidents 
Sept. 5, 1774 to July 1, 1776

September 5, 1774
October 22, 1774
October 22, 1774
October 26, 1774
May 20, 1775
May 24, 1775
May 25, 1775
July 1, 1776

Commander-in-Chief United Colonies & States of America

George Washington: June 15, 1775 - December 23, 1783

Continental Congress of the United States Presidents 
July 2, 1776 to February 28, 1781

July 2, 1776
October 29, 1777
November 1, 1777
December 9, 1778
December 10, 1778
September 28, 1779
September 29, 1779
February 28, 1781

Presidents of the United States in Congress Assembled
March 1, 1781 to March 3, 1789

March 1, 1781
July 6, 1781
July 10, 1781
Declined Office
July 10, 1781
November 4, 1781
November 5, 1781
November 3, 1782
November 4, 1782
November 2, 1783
November 3, 1783
June 3, 1784
November 30, 1784
November 22, 1785
November 23, 1785
June 5, 1786
June 6, 1786
February 1, 1787
February 2, 1787
January 21, 1788
January 22, 1788
January 21, 1789

Presidents of the United States of America

D-Democratic Party, F-Federalist Party, I-Independent, R-Republican Party, R* Republican Party of Jefferson & W-Whig Party 

 (1881 - 1881)
*Confederate States  of America

Chart Comparing Presidential Powers Click Here

United Colonies and States First Ladies

United Colonies Continental Congress
18th Century Term
09/05/74 – 10/22/74
Mary Williams Middleton (1741- 1761) Deceased
Henry Middleton
05/20/ 75 - 05/24/75
05/25/75 – 07/01/76
United States Continental Congress
07/02/76 – 10/29/77
Eleanor Ball Laurens (1731- 1770) Deceased
Henry Laurens
11/01/77 – 12/09/78
Sarah Livingston Jay (1756-1802)
12/ 10/78 – 09/28/78
Martha Huntington (1738/39–1794)
09/29/79 – 02/28/81
United States in Congress Assembled
Martha Huntington (1738/39–1794)
03/01/81 – 07/06/81
07/10/81 – 11/04/81
Jane Contee Hanson (1726-1812)
11/05/81 - 11/03/82
11/03/82 - 11/02/83
Sarah Morris Mifflin (1747-1790)
11/03/83 - 11/02/84
11/20/84 - 11/19/85
11/23/85 – 06/06/86
Rebecca Call Gorham (1744-1812)
06/06/86 - 02/01/87
02/02/87 - 01/21/88
01/22/88 - 01/29/89

Constitution of 1787
First Ladies
April 30, 1789 – March 4, 1797
March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801
Martha Wayles Jefferson Deceased
September 6, 1782  (Aged 33)
March 4, 1809 – March 4, 1817
March 4, 1817 – March 4, 1825
March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829
December 22, 1828 (aged 61)
February 5, 1819 (aged 35)
March 4, 1841 – April 4, 1841
April 4, 1841 – September 10, 1842
June 26, 1844 – March 4, 1845
March 4, 1845 – March 4, 1849
March 4, 1849 – July 9, 1850
July 9, 1850 – March 4, 1853
March 4, 1853 – March 4, 1857
March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865
February 22, 1862 – May 10, 1865
April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869
March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1877
March 4, 1877 – March 4, 1881
March 4, 1881 – September 19, 1881
January 12, 1880 (Aged 43)
June 2, 1886 – March 4, 1889
March 4, 1889 – October 25, 1892
June 2, 1886 – March 4, 1889
March 4, 1897 – September 14, 1901
September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909
March 4, 1909 – March 4, 1913
March 4, 1913 – August 6, 1914
December 18, 1915 – March 4, 1921
March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923
August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929
March 4, 1929 – March 4, 1933
March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945
April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1953
January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961
January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963
November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1969
January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974
August 9, 1974 – January 20, 1977
January 20, 1977 – January 20, 1981
January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989
January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993
January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001
January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009
January 20, 2009 to date

Capitals of the United Colonies and States of America

Sept. 5, 1774 to Oct. 24, 1774
May 10, 1775 to Dec. 12, 1776
Dec. 20, 1776 to Feb. 27, 1777
March 4, 1777 to Sept. 18, 1777
September 27, 1777
Sept. 30, 1777 to June 27, 1778
July 2, 1778 to June 21, 1783
June 30, 1783 to Nov. 4, 1783
Nov. 26, 1783 to Aug. 19, 1784
Nov. 1, 1784 to Dec. 24, 1784
New York City
Jan. 11, 1785 to Nov. 13, 1788
New York City
October 6, 1788 to March 3,1789
New York City
March 3,1789 to August 12, 1790
Dec. 6,1790 to May 14, 1800       
Washington DC
November 17,1800 to Present

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The United Colonies of North America Continental Congress Presidents (1774-1776)
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